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Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Cardinal King Henry IX.

The anniversary
our Cardinal King Henry IX and I.

The Arms of the Cardinal Duke of York.

On 13 July, 1807,
the soul of
Henry Benedict Mary Clement Thomas Francis Xavier Stuart
entered eternity.
He was a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church.

The Arms of the Stuart Kings.

He was King Henry IX of England, France and Ireland;
King Henry I of Scotland.
He is buried in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.

I think that the life of this exiled
King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland,
the last of the Royal House of Stuart,
is most fitting.

The long procession of the Royal Stuarts concludes,
not in a hellish death struggle against the usurper,

but rather with the holy life long sacrifice
of the youngest member of the dynasty,
offered to God.
Henry Stuart
as Prince, heir to the thrones
and legitimate king,

lays down his life in the service of the King of kings
as the Priest-King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland,
Defender of the Faith.

The King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland,
and the Defender of the Faith,
as priest and victim
daily offered the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
for nearly 59 full years.
He was Prince of the Holy Roman Church for 60 years.

"...our every sacrifice was made for God,
for the Faith,
and for that unshaken loyalty we have ever displayed
towards the Primacy of Peter and the Holy See."

(Henry Cardinal called Duke of York, 4 Nov. 1792.)

A brief sketch of his life:

The Duke of York.

He was born in Rome on 6 March 1725,
the second son of exiled
King James III of England and VIII of Scotland.
On the same day he was baptised by Pope Benedict XIII,
shortly after, as the king's second son,
he was created Duke of York.

In 1745 he went to France to help his brother,
H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales,
(better known as
Bonnie Prince Charlie),

to prepare the Jacobite campaign in Scotland.

In June 1747 Pope Benedict XIV announced his intention
to enroll Prince Henry, Duke of York,
in the Sacred College of Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.

30 June 1747
the Duke of York was tonsured
by Pope Benedict XIV.

In the consistory of 3 July 1747,
the Duke of York was created

1 September 1748, in his 24th year of age,
he was ordained a Priest
and thereafter
daily offered the Sacred Victim
on the altar.

15 May - 6 July 1758,
aged 33 years,
he participated in the conclave to elect
Pope Clement XIII.

2 October, 1758,
the Cardinal Prince was appointed
Titular Archbishop of Corinthus
and consecrated bishop on 19 November 1758,
by Pope Clement XIII.

The following year he was appointed
Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere;
his Arms (above) can still be seen
in that ancient basilica's Lady chapel.

The Cardinal Duke of York.

On 13 July 1761,
46 years to the day before he would leave this world,
he was raised yet higher in the Church
when he was appointed
Archbishop (Personal Title) of Frascati.

On 1 January, 1766
his father King James III of England
and VIII of Scotland died.
The King's eldest son became
King Charles III.

The Cardinal Duke of York became the heir apparent.

15 February - 19 May 1769, aged 43,
he participated in the conclave that elected
Pope Clement XIV.

5 October 1775 - 15 February 1775 aged 49,
he participated in the conclave to elect
Pope Pius VI.

30 January, 1788 H.M. King Charles III,
Bonnie Prince Charlie,
his brother, died.

30 January, 1788,
the Cardinal-Prince, Duke of York,
succeeded to all of his British rights as
King Henry IX of England, France and Ireland;
King Henry I of Scotland;
Defender of the Faith.

(He now used the title
"Cardinal called Duke of York"
in order to indicate that this was no longer his real title.
He changed his arms from those of a second son,
with a crescent in the middle,
to the undifferenced Royal Arms.)

1 December 1799 - 14 March 1800, aged 74,
he participated in the conclave
that elected
Pope Pius VII.

26 September 1803
he was appointed Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia
and Dean of the College of Cardinals
which office he held until his death.

REQUIEM aeternam dona ei, Domine,
et lux perpetua luceat ei.
Requiescat in pace. Amen.

Eternal rest grant unto him O Lord,
and let perpetual light shine upon him.
May he rest in peace. Amen.

And may the souls of all the faithful departed
rest in peace. Amen.

The tomb of the exiled Stuart Kings
St. Peter's Basilica, Rome.


Anne B said...

I am absolutely "blown away" by this magnificent news; I had no idea.

My late husband, Robert Buchan, who was baptised in the Catholic Church only three weeks before his death, loved Bonny Prince Charlie. Tho' an Aussie, he had Scottish ancestors, and often sang or played "The Skye Boat Song". I don't think he knew any of this either, though he did know that Prince Charles was buried in the Vatican.

When I saw Mary Queen of Scots' shoe in a Bribie Island, Queensland (Australia) Museum, along with some disparaging comments about her, I was devastated.

I was more than heartened, however, to read the unexpectedly excellent "modern" treatment of her in the relatively recent novel by Jackie French, titled "The Dog Who Loved a Queen".

Once again, I am amazed, and I thank you most sincerely for this Post!

Jack said...

Does not reception of major orders, if not the clerical tonsure, extinguish all worldly and royal titles?

It does in Eastern Christianity.

Anonymous said...

He was addressed by the Church in her official documents as "Most Eminent Royal Highness"; He was created Cardinal keepking his title as Duke of York"; his Coat of Arms was that of the second son of the King (distinguised by the crescent in the center).
Reception of Orders did not extinguish his royal titles.

Anonymous said...

Actually an example from Orthodoxy would be Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna. She was the abbess of the Marfa-Mariansky monastery and yet she is known and referred to everywhere as Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna?

Jack said...

Good point,, Anonymous, but St. Elizabeth and her followers were not tonsured as nuns (and in the East, monastic tonsure definitely extinguishes royal titles), but as Stavrophore Sisters of Charity--something revolutionary in Orthodoxy, as they were in what the Latin Church calls the "active life". Their rite of tonsure and investitture was a special rite composed by the Holy Synod.

They had provisions in their rule for retired sisters to be tonsured as nuns, properly considered.

Most people I know refer to her as St. Elizabeth, the New-Martyred Abbess.

I have her icon which was touched to her holy relics, so it's also a 3rd class relic.

May she pray for us always.

Anonymous said...

Hello Jack,
Thank you for that, its interesting. I know that these nuns were something special but its interesting to hear they were stvroforniki, because stavroforniki are those wearing the angelic habit, its the ordinary second degree of monasticism and is equivilent to perpetual profession in the west. Thus they are indeed tonsured as nuns? Just an interesting discussion.

Jack said...

Dear Anonymous,

Please read what I said carefully. They specifically were NOT tonsured as nuns, though there was a provision in their rule for retired sisters who had labored long to be tonsured to the mandyas--stavrophore nuns properly considered.

There is evidence that St. Elizabeth was so tonsured secretly.

However, the sisters of the Martha-Mary Convent of Mercy were addressed as that, rather than as Mother, the proper address for a stavrophore nun.

The Icon I have of St. Elizabeth shows her companion identified as Sister--not Nun--Barbara.

However more important is that they are now called, and addressed as Saints.

Jack said...

Forgive me, all.

I forgot to mention that if you look at the photos of St. Elizabeth and the other Sisters of Mercy, they are NOT wearing the habit of a Russian Orthodox nun.

Rather than the black tunic, ryassa, apostolnik, and klobuk, they wear simply a grey tunic and veil over a white apostolnik (it looks like a loose wimple). A white habit was worn in church.

They also wore exposed crosses on cords--something that Orthodox nuns did not normally wear, though you see it in this country.

Anonymous said...

Hi Jack,
Thank you for this information. While I would admit that the grand duchess is a great woman I am not convinced that as a Catholic I could venerate her as a saint, but that is another point as I introduced her as an example of being a noble and a nun in the Orthodox Church.
Still the discussion as to the state of her monasticism is interesting.
Actually if you look closely at the Slavonic titled icons they read for Elizabeth's inscription: "Святая преподобномученица великая княгиня Елисавета" which is exactly what I started off as saying, and as such somebody who was even secretly tonsured as abbess - "преподобномученица" - is being titled as "Grand Duchess" or sometimes "Holy Royal Martyr".
My point is this. These things are far more complex than they seem and we cannot always definitively state that such and such is the case in every case, because it is not.
I think that at the end of the day every servant of God who serves Our Lord in the monastic state should be considered as a monk or nun and if because of their very elevated nobility people still honoured them as King or Grand-Duchess, I think that reflects more piety than legalistic nit-picking?
Thanks Jack for the interesting thoughts!

Jack said...

Why not venerate her?

I did as an Orthodox, and I see no reason to stop now that I am a member of an Eastern Catholic Church.

She herself was a descendant of St. Elizabeth of Hungary and raised a Lutheran. As she said to her family on the eve of her conversion to Orthodoxy, "We are all of us Christians, Christ's children."

I also believe that as members of the different sister Churches (as Bl. John Paul called them) venerate each other's saints, this should go a long way towards healing schisms and speeding up reconciliation between the Churches.

What do you think?

Anonymous said...

Dear Jack,
Good Evening, I am afraid that we should not perhaps be taking up the valuable time and space on the good Fathers blog for this correspondence, but it is nice to correspond with you none-the-less as we have similar interests. Perhaps if you sent the Fathers your email address I could send mine and this way we could stay in contact in a more descreet forum.
Thank you Jack I would like to keep in contact with you, it would be very mutually enriching.
By the way did you perhaps know somebody called Vsevelod. I have often seen you commenting and wondered if you may be the same good soul.
God bless.

Anonymous said...

I remember seeing the tomb of the exiled Stuarts in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

Interesting comments about St. Elizabeth the Royal Martyr of Russia. In my area of New York State (USA) there is a monastery of Russian Orthodox nuns which is named for her.

I've also seen the statue of her over the West Door of Westminster Abbey in London.

She was a truly holy woman, both as a royal lady and as a religious. And she died the death of a martyr!

Barb in America

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